Nanoparticles that stagger delivery of two drugs knock out aggressive tumors in mice

May 08, 2014 by Anne Trafton
Nanoparticles that stagger delivery of two drugs knock out aggressive tumors in mice
The nanoparticle contains the cancer drug doxorubicin (green spheres) in its core. Erlotinib is embedded in the red outer shell. Attached to the surface are chains of polyethylene glycol (PEG), in yellow. Credit: Stephen Morton

MIT researchers have devised a novel cancer treatment that destroys tumor cells by first disarming their defenses, then hitting them with a lethal dose of DNA damage.

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The Legacy of HeLa

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by Lisa Winter

Henrietta Lacks was integral to the formulation of the polio vaccine, cloning, mapping genes, biomedical ethics, the field of virology, and many other facets of modern medicine. But, she never looked down a microscope. She never invented anything. She never authored a scientific paper. She was not a scientist of any kind. Why is she featured on this website? In 1951, before she lost her fight with cervical cancer, samples were taken from her body, and that cell line is still alive today.

Traditionally, human cells had been difficult to culture. They died after a few short days, prohibiting long term experiments. However, when Dr. George Gey of Johns Hopkins University collected cells from Henrietta Lacks (and abbreviated the tube as HeLa), a lineage of cancer cells was discovered that had incredible resilience. The cells grew so quickly and readily, they were able to be distributed to scientists around the world for experimentation free of charge — without Henrietta’s knowledge or consent. At the time, bioethical standards were starting to come together. While informed consent may have been recommended, it was not required. The samples which had an abnormal longevity were eventually sent to laboratories around the world without the knowledge or consent of Henrietta or her family.

Why are these cells considered “immortal”? When DNA replicates, the telomeres at the end of chromosomes shorten with every round. After about 50 divisions, typical human cells reach what is known as the Hayflick Limit, where the telomeres have become too short to divide, and the cell undergoes apoptosis. Cancer cells do not respond in the same way. This, combined with the natural strength of Henrietta’s cells, has resulted in a cell lineage that has remained hardy throughout the years.

As of today, Henrietta’s cells have lived outside her body for over 60 years; twice as long as they lived inside her body. There are now other long lasting human cell lineages studied by scientists, but HeLa cells were the first, and continue to be the most popular.

As genomic sequencing has become more commonplace, questions about the Lacks family’s privacy have come to the forefront. Earlier this year, papers published HeLa’s genome without first getting authorization from the family. After months of negotiations, it was announced last month that research dealing with the sequence can continue. The only caveat is that the work has to promote the greater good for humanity and researchers must do whatever they can to ensure the Lacks’ privacy.

Read more at http://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/legacy-hela#gl6OFxK6UtRuvut2.99

Killing cancer like the common cold

Nick Wilkins was diagnosed with leukemia when he was 4 years old, and when the cancer kept bouncing back, impervious to all the different treatments the doctors tried, his father sat him down for a talk.

Cure of Leukaemia

John Wilkins explained to Nick, who was by then 14, that doctors had tried chemotherapy, radiation, even a bone marrow transplant from his sister.

“I explained to him that we’re running out of options,” Wilkins remembers telling his son.

There was one possible treatment they could try: an experimental therapy at the University of Pennsylvania.

He asked his son if he understood what it would mean if this treatment didn’t work.

Read More Here on CNN.com

Nuklearmedizinische Herzdiagnostik – Schneller und schonender

Die Anzahl von Herzerkrankungen steigt stetig. Sie gehören in Deutschland zu den häufigsten Todesursachen. Die Untersuchung der Durchblutung und des Stoffwechsels des Herzmuskels mit nuklearmedizinischen Methoden hat eine rasante Entwicklung genommen.

 

Durch sie können ohne Eingriff in den Körper in kurzer Zeit die Durchblutung dieses Muskels einfach und verlässlich dargestellt und so wichtige Erkenntnisse über Funktion und Zustand des Herzmuskels gewonnen werden. Dadurch sind beispielsweise sehr genaue Prognosen zum Infarktrisiko des Patienten möglich.

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